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Protecting heart

Heart disease is the leading cause of death in world. Smoking, eating an unhealthy diet, and not getting enough exercise all increase the risk for having heart disease. Having high cholesterol, high blood lipid and pressure, or diabetes also can increase the risk for heart disease. In China, the proportion of abnormal blood glucose and blood lipid in adults accounts for 11% and 40% respectively. The hypoglycemic or lipid-lowering drugs have the side effects on people’s health. Modern scientific and clinical studies have found that mushroom play an important role in the prevention and treatment of abnormal blood glucose and blood lipid and protecting our hearts.
 
It is well Known that hypercholesterolaemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. Sook Yee Hor et al¹studied the lipid-lowering effect of Coriolus versicolor (CV) extracts in hypercholesterolaemic and high cholesterol-fed rats. The results showed that CV extract administration caused a significant reduction in serum total cholesterol (p<0.01) and triglycerides (p<0.05) levels in poloxamer 407-treated rats, as well as a reduction in the coronary risk index in these rats. And, the results suggest that the consumption of CV extract has the potential to reduce or prevent hypercholesterolaemia.
 
The researchers from South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences ² found that the crude extracts of 11 kinds of mushroom, such as Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa, Hericium erinaceus, Lentinus edodes, Agaricus blazi and Cordyceps sinensis had hypoglycemic effect on type II diabetic mice, among which Grifola frondosa had the most significant effect. After 7 days of feeding mice, the blood glucose of mice decreased by 50%. Qingping Wu, academician of Guangdong Institute of Microbiology3, further revealed that the hypoglycemic effect of Grifola frondosa polysaccharide is mainly through the activation of insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate, thus improving insulin sensitivity and insulin resistance, promoting glucose absorption and ultimately achieving hypoglycemic effect.
 
Polysaccharide Peptide (PsP) derived from Ganoderma lucidum has an active substance in the form of β-glucan. Previous studies have proven the PsP of Ganoderma lucidum as an effective antioxidant in atherosclerotic rats and shows no toxicity in animal model. Brawijaya University 4 in Indonesia did a study aims to prove the effect of PsP as potent antioxidant in high risk and stable angina patients. There is a clinical trial conducted to 37 high risk and 34 stable angina patients and the results showed that PsP of Ganoderma lucidum is a potent antioxidant against pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in stable angina and high risk patients.

 
Tanya T. W. Chu, et al took a clinic study on the effects of Lingzhi on the heart diseases patients. A total of twenty-six patients received 1.44 g Lingzhi daily or matching placebo for 12 weeks in a random, double-blind, cross-over study with placebo-controlled run-in and cross-over periods. Body weight, blood pressure, metabolic parameters, urine catecholamines and cortisol, antioxidant status and lymphocyte subsets were measured after each period. Lingzhi was well tolerated and data from twenty-three evaluable subjects showed no changes in BMI or blood pressure when treated with Lingzhi or placebo. Plasma insulin and homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance were lower after treatment with Lingzhi than after placebo. TAG decreased and HDL-cholesterol increased with Lingzhi but not with placebo in the first treatment period. Results indicate that Lingzhi might have mild antidiabetic effects and potentially improve the dyslipidaemia of diabetes, as shown previously in some animal studies.
 
1Sook Yee Hor, Elham Farsi, Mun Fei Yam, Norazimah Mat Nuyah and Mohd. Zaini Asmawi, Lipid-lowering effects of Coriolus versicolor extract in poloxamer 407-induced hypercholesterolaemic rats and high cholesterol-fed rats, Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 2011, Vol. 5(11), 2261-2266
 
2Chun Xiao, Qingping Wu, Jianbin Tan, Wen Cai, Xiaobing Yang and Jumei Zhang (2011): Inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase and hypoglycemic effects of the crude polysaccharides isolated from 11 edible fungi, Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Vol. 5(32), 6963-6967
 
3Chun Xiao, Qingping Wu, Yizhen Xie, Jumei Zhang and Jianbin Tan (2015): Hypoglycemic effects of Grifola frondosa (Maitake) polysaccharides F2 and F3 through improvement of insulin resistance in diabetic rats, Food & Function, 6, 3567
 
4Djanggan Sargowo, Nadia Oviant, Eliana Susilowati, Nizamuddin Ubaidillah, Adriyawan Widya Nugraha, Vitriyaturrida, Kartika SiwiProboretno, Mirza Failasufi, Fadhli Ramadhan, HestiWulandari, Yoga Waranugraha, and Dinarsari Hayuning Putri (2018): The role of polysaccharide peptide of Ganoderma lucidum as a potent antioxidant against atherosclerosis in high risk and stable angina patients, Indian Heart Journal, Vol. 70, Issue 5, 608-614
 
5Tanya T. W. Chu, et al, Study of potential cardioprotective effects of Ganoderma lucidum(Lingzhi): results of a controlled human intervention trial, British Journal of Nutrition (2012), 107, 1017–1027